I took a few sample shots on my Samsung Galaxy S10e and iPhone XS this morning and wanted to share the differences. It's worth noting that none of these photos are of people, which is where the S10e I feel falls flat, but if you're taking pics of still objects, this comparison will be more useful.
Oh, and there are only a few photos here, so the same size is pretty low. If there are things you want me to compare more specifically, let me know!
In this first comparison, I think the Galaxy beats the iPhone both in terms of the overall image as well as the fine details, especially in shadows.
The first image in this set is not as interesting, but it does show how each camera handles colors. The iPhone is more "friendly" here and the Galaxy makes the grass look more dead than it actually is. The real difference comes when we try to zoom in a ton on each image. This is at about 7x zoom on each and you can really see how much the iPhone XS benefits from having a telephoto lens.
This portrait mode shot is going to come down to personal preference, but I personally like the iPhone shot waaaaay more. Zooming in and we see the iPhone does a better job separating the subject from the background as well.
And that's it! This was just a small comparison, so let me know on Twitter what other types of photos you'd like to see me compare.